Embolization is a neuro-interventional procedure for closing one or more abnormalities in blood vessels. Various materials may be used, depending on whether the occlusion (closing) is to be temporary or permanent, or whether large or small vessels are being treated. These materials include glue or particles. (See AVM)
Glue (NBCA) is a permanent embolic agent and is commonly used to treat AVM lesions. The substance hardens (polymerizes) immediately on contact with blood or other ionic fluid.
Other embolic agents include: PVA particles (polyvinyl alcohol) and acrylic gelatin microspheres (used for treating arteriovenous malformation (AVM) lesions) and detachable balloons that can be used to treat arteriovenous fistula (AVF) lesions. Gelfoam is a temporary embolic agent used to occlude abnormal vessels (e.g., bleeding or presurgical devascularization).
(See Endovascular embolization)