These physicians handle all disorders of the digestive system, which includes: the liver; gallbladder; pancreas; esophagus; stomach; and the large and small intestines. Gastro-enterologists treat ailments such as: heartburn; difficulty in swallowing; ulcers; ileitis and colitis; chronic diarrhea or constipation; jaundice; hepatitis; cirrhosis, including assessment for liver transplantation; gallstones, including evaluation for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and other alternatives to conventional gallbladder surgery; and abdominal malignancies, including colon and rectal cancer screening. These physicians perform all currently recommended and approved diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within their specialty. These procedures include: endoscopy; colonoscopy with the ability to remove polyps; and evaluation of the pancreas and biliary tree and the release of trapped ductal stones. The evaluation of the small intestine can now be accomplished by a pill that, when swallowed, can take pictures of the intestine and transmit these for physician review. Advanced evaluation of the esophagus in patients with serious reflux (GERD) is available as well.